Abstract : In engineering applications, heterogeneous media are often described in statistical terms. This partial knowledge is sufficient to determine the effective, i. e. large-scale behavior. This effective behavior may be inferred from the Representative Volume Element (RVE) method. I report on last years’ progress on the quantitative understanding of what is called stochastic homogenization of elliptic partial differential equations : optimal error estimates of the RVE method and the homogenization error, and the leading-order characterization of fluctuations. Methods connect to elliptic regularity theory, and in fact lead to a fresh look upon this classical area, and to concentration of measure arguments. We put a special emphasis on annealed Calderón-Zygmund estimates.